Continuous and Interval Training
Energy for absolute speed is supplied by the anaerobic alactic pathway. This speed component of anaerobic metabolism lasts for approximately eight seconds and should be trained when no muscle fatigue is present usually after 24 to 36 hours of rest. The technique of sprinting must be rehearsed at slow speeds and then transferred to runs at maximum speed. The stimulation, excitation and correct firing order of the motor units, composed of a motor nerve Neuron and the group of muscles that it supplies, makes it possible for high-frequency movements to occur. The whole process is not very clear, but the complex coordination and timing of the motor units and muscles most certainly must be rehearsed at high speeds to implant the correct patterns.
Flexibility and a correct warm-up will affect stride length and frequency strike rate. Stride length can be improved by developing muscular strength, power, strength endurance and running technique. The development of speed is highly specific and to achieve it we should ensure that:. It is important to remember that the improvement of running speed is a complex process that is controlled by the brain and nervous system.
In order for a runner to move more quickly, the leg muscles have to contract more quickly, but the brain and nervous systems have to learn to control these faster movements efficiently. If you maintain some form of speed training throughout the year, your muscles and nervous system do not lose the feel of moving fast and the brain will not have to re-learn the proper control patterns at a later date. In the training week, speed work should be carried out after a period of rest or light training. In a training session, speed work should be conducted after the warm-up and any other training should be of a low-intensity.
The following are sample speed workouts for competitive runners Dr Karp . The athletes start in a variety of different positions - lying face down, lying on their backs, in a push-up or sit up position, kneeling or seated. Repeat using various starting positions and with the coach standing in different places so that the athletes have to change directions quickly once they begin to run.
Let the left side of your upper torso lie relaxed on the ground and fold your arms over the front of your trunk. Then, slowly raise your torso with a twisting motion so that you end up with your torso upright and perpendicular to the ground, and your chest and face facing forward. Slowly lower your upper torso back to the starting position on the ground don't let your upper body plummet downward in an uncontrolled manner! Complete 15 sit ups with your left side down and then shift over to the right for 15 more. Perform 20 lunges with each leg.
Do each lunge from a six-inch platform or step, so that the forward, lunging foot undergoes an exaggerated downward acceleration.
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Run metres at 5k pace. Do 15 feet elevated press ups. Complete 15 one leg squats with your right leg and then 15 more with your left Perform 30 low back extensions with a twisting motion I, instead of lifting your upper body straight up as you lie flat on the ground with your belly touching earth, your arms at your sides, and your palms on the ground, lift and twist your upper body to the right during the first rep, lift and twist your torso to the left during the second, to the right during the third, hectic.
Naturally, you will need to untwist your upper body each time your trunk moves back toward the ground so that your stomach and chest, not your sides, touch the ground. Always do this rhythmically and smoothly, while maintaining good control.
Carry out 20 bench dips. Hop on your right foot, covering 20 metres as fast as you can; then do the same on your left foot. Complete 15 high bench step ups with each leg.
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Run metres at 5k pace Repeat steps 3 to 14 one more time for two circuits in all , and then cool down with 2 miles of light jogging Half Marathon Circuit Warm-up with two miles of easy running, follow with some dynamic stretching routines and then perform the following activities in order. Carry out 70 low back extensions Do 20 press-ups Complete 15 one leg squats with your right leg and then 15 more with your left Run one mile at goal half marathon velocity Carry out 30 bench dips Complete 15 high bench step ups with each leg Jump times in place, getting your propulsive force from your ankles, not your knees, and carrying out the last 30 jumps at an especially quick tempo for all jumps, don't try for great height - your feet should only come off the ground a few inches; what you are really looking for is quick reaction with the ground, I, minimised ground contact times Carry out 30 cross body leg swings with each leg.
To do these, lean slightly forward with your hands on a wall or other support and your full body weight on your left leg. Then, swing your right leg to the left in front of your body, pointing your toes upward as your foot reaches its farthest point of motion. After this, swing your right leg back to the right as far as comfortably possible, again pointing your toes up as your foot reaches it final point of movement.
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Repeat this overall motion 30 times before performing 30 reps with your left leg Run one mile at goal half-marathon velocity Repeat steps 3 to 14 one more time for two circuits in all , and then cool down with two miles of light jogging Marathon Circuit Warm-up with two miles of easy running, follow with some dynamic stretching routines and then perform the following activities in order. Run metres at what feels like 10K intensity 2. Complete 15 burpees squat thrusts with jumps 3.
Perform 12 press ups 4.
Components of Fitness
Do 12 one leg squats with each leg 5. Run metres at a little faster than marathon speed 6. Carry out 50 abdominal crunches 7.
Complete 12 lunges with each leg 8. Perform 50 low back extensions 9. Run metres at a little faster than goal marathon speed Resistance training will increase the muscle size hypertrophy. Muscle growth depends on the muscle fibre type activated and the pattern of recruitment.
Muscle growth is due to one or more of the following adaptations:. Muscle contraction is initiated by an electrical charge from the central nervous system. The exercise that causes the greatest amount of electrical activity within the muscle group will potentially produce the greatest gains in mass and strength. Lorenzo Cornacchia Bompa et al. The results were as follows:. Most sports will require some or all of the following strength types to be developed to one degree or another and the weight training program should reflect this. The aim is to develop muscles that are able to produce repeated contractions under conditions of fatigue.
Appropriate for field sports, rowing and martial arts. The aim is to develop fast powerful movements. Appropriate for power-based events e. The aim is to enable maximum loads to be lifted. The aim is to increase muscle size. Appropriate for Bodybuilding or sports like USA football where increased size is a valuable asset. The amount of weight to be used should be based on a percentage of the maximum amount of weight that can be lifted one time , generally referred to as one repetition maximum 1RM.
The maximum number of repetitions performed before fatigue prohibits the completion of an additional repetition is a function of the weight used, referred to as repetition maximum RM , and reflects the intensity of the exercise. For maximum results, athletes should train according to their genetic predisposition. An athlete with a greater proportion of slow twitch muscles would adapt better to endurance training and a muscular endurance program using more repetitions of a lighter weight.
An athlete with a greater proportion of fast twitch muscles would benefit from sprint training and a muscular strength program using fewer repetitions of a heavier weight. Hatfield's Muscle Fibre Test may help you determine your predominate muscle type. The relationship of percentage loads to a number of repetitions rounded up to failure is as follows:. The number of repetitions performed to fatigue is an important consideration in designing a strength training program.
The greatest strength gains appear to result from working with RM. Increasing this to RM favours the increase in muscle endurance and mass. One set of RM performed 3 days a week is a typical strength training program. The optimal number of sets of an exercise to develop muscle strength remains controversial. In a number of studies comparing multiple set programs to produce greater strength gains than a single set, the majority of studies indicate that there is not a significant difference.
Handling heavyweights in the pursuit of strength will require a recovery of minutes between sets, but only minimum recovery should be taken if strength endurance is the aim. The majority of athletic events are fast and dynamic, and therefore this quality must be reflected in the athlete's strength work. Muscular strength is primarily developed when 8RM or less is used in a set.
How much load you use depends upon what it is you wish to develop Kraemer et al. An inadequate recovery means more reliance on the Lactic Acid LA energy pathway in the next set.